# RogerBW's Blog

Perl Weekly Challenge 92: Isomorphic Interval 25 December 2020

I’ve been doing the Perl Weekly Challenges. The latest involved string isomorphism and interval merging. (Note that this is open until 27 December 2020.)

# TASK #1 › Isomorphic Strings

You are given two strings `\$A` and `\$B`.

Write a script to check if the given strings are Isomorphic. Print 1 if they are otherwise 0.

``````sub isos {
my @s=@_;
``````

Well, if they aren't the same length they certainly aren't isomorphic.

``````  if (length(\$s[0]) != length(\$s[1])) {
return 0;
}
``````

For each string I have an array of its characters, a mapping table, and a mapping index.

``````  my @c=map {[split '',\$_]} @s;
my @lt=({},{});
my @n=(0,0);
``````

Then for each character index in the strings:

``````  foreach my \$ci (0..\$#{\$c[0]}) {
my @r;
``````

For each string, map the character to an integer, either one I've seen before in this string or a newly-allocated one. (Yeah, it uses more storage this way than the standard solution, which is to map characters in a to characters in b, but it felt cleaner and more symmetrical.)

``````    foreach my \$si (0,1) {
if (exists \$lt[\$si]{\$c[\$si][\$ci]}) {
push @r,\$lt[\$si]{\$c[\$si][\$ci]};
} else {
\$lt[\$si]{\$c[\$si][\$ci]}=\$n[\$si];
push @r,\$n[\$si];
\$n[\$si]++;
}
}
``````

If the two characters don't map to the same integer, the comparison has failed.

``````    if (\$r[0] != \$r[1]) {
return 0;
}
}
return 1;
}
``````

Raku and Ruby are similar but for syntax. In Python a string is already an array of characters, and in Rust it can be made into one.

``````fn isos(a: String,b: String) -> i64 {
if &a.len() != &b.len() {
return 0;
}
let s: Vec<Vec<char>>=vec![a.chars().collect(),b.chars().collect()];
let mut lt: std::vec::Vec<std::collections::HashMap<char, i64>> = vec![HashMap::new(),HashMap::new()];
let mut n=vec![0,0];
for ci in 0..s[0].len() {
let mut r: std::vec::Vec<i64>=vec![];
for si in 0 as usize..=1 {
if lt[si].contains_key(&s[si][ci]) {
r.push(*lt[si].get(&s[si][ci]).unwrap());
} else {
lt[si].insert(s[si][ci],n[si]);
r.push(n[si]);
n[si]+=1;
}
}
if r[0] != r[1] {
return 0;
}
}
return 1;
}
``````

# TASK #2 › Insert Interval

You are given a set of sorted non-overlapping intervals and a new interval.

Write a script to merge the new interval to the given set of intervals.

One of those standard compsci problems which I don't think I've ever had to do in real life. Anyway, the key distractor here is the word "sorted"; I'll just sort the new interval into the existing list and then do a standard interval collapse on it (which will also work if they aren't sorted or aren't non-overlapping).

``````sub ii {
my (\$iv,\$nv)=@_;
my @q=@{\$iv};
push @q,\$nv;
@q=sort {\$a->[0] <=> \$b->[0]} @q;
``````

`@q` is now a list of all intervals sorted by starting point.

``````  my @out;
foreach my \$il (@q) {
``````

For each new element, if the output list is empty or the top value in the output list is smaller than the bottom value of the new interval, just append new interval to output.

``````    if (scalar @out == 0 ||
\$out[-1][1] < \$il->[0]) {
push @out,\$il;
} else {
``````

Otherwise, i.e. the top value of the output list overlaps with the bottom of the new interval, replace that top value with the top of the new interval.

``````      \$out[-1][1]=max(\$out[-1][1],\$il->[1]);
}
}
return \@out;
}
``````

Raku, Python and Ruby go similarly, and even Rust doesn't need a lot of verbiage:

``````fn ii(iv: Vec<Vec<i64>>,nv: Vec<i64>) -> Vec<Vec<i64>> {
let mut q=iv;
q.push(nv);
q.sort_by(|a,b| a[0].cmp(&b[0]));
let mut out: Vec<Vec<i64>>=vec![];
for il in q {
let oi=out.len();
if oi == 0 ||
out[oi-1][1] < il[0] {
out.push(il);
} else {
out[oi-1][1]=cmp::max(out[oi-1][1],il[1]);
}
}
return out;
}
``````

Full code on github.

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