RogerBW's Blog

Perl Weekly Challenge 138: Split Work 12 November 2021

I’ve been doing the Weekly Challenges. The latest involved date calculations and numerical decompositions. (Note that this is open until 14 November 2021.)

Task 1: Workdays

You are given a year, $year in 4-digits form.

Write a script to calculate the total number of workdays in the given year.

For the task, we consider Monday - Friday as workdays.

So there's a limited number of year configurations: ending on each weekday (Monday-Sunday), and leap year or not. In every case, the first 364 days of the year provide 52 weeks and thus 260 working days.

In a non-leap year. 1 January-30 December is 364 days, so the only one that matters is 31 December; the total workdays will be 261 if that falls on a Monday to Friday, 260 otherwise.

For a leap year, 30 and 31 December are both relevant. If 31 December falls on a Tuesday to Friday, add 2 working days to the base of 260; Saturday or Monday, 1; Sunday, 0.

And we already have a weekday-of-31-December calculator from last week's challenge 1.

So (in the Raku) we recycle that:

sub p($y) {
  return ($y+floor($y/4)-floor($y/100)+floor($y/400))%7;
}

Add a leap-year calculator:

sub leapyear($y) {
  return ($y%4 == 0 && ($y%100 != 0 || $y%400 == 0));
}

(In languages with a divmod function one could combine the two, but I didn't bother.)

Then use both functions to generate an index into a lookup table of extra days. (Note that p() gives 1 for a Monday, etc.)

sub workdays($y) {
  my $i=p($y);
  if (leapyear($y)) {
    $i+=7;
  }
  return 260+[0,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,2,2,2,2,1].[$i];
}

In PostScript, the leap year calculator:

/leapyear {
    dup dup
    4 mod 0 eq {
        100 mod 0 ne exch
        400 mod 0 eq or
        {
            true
        } {
            false
        } ifelse
    } {
        pop pop false
    } ifelse
} bind def

And the same calculation and offset.

/workdays {
    dup
    p exch
    leapyear {
        7 add
    } if
    [ 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 ] exch get 260 add
} bind def

Task 2: Split Number

You are given a perfect square.

Write a script to figure out if the square root of the given number is same as sum of 2 or more splits of the given number.

The examples make it clear that "splits" are additive: i.e. express the number as a string of digits, insert "+" signs between some of them, and evaluate the resulting expression.

This is more or less what I do: with digits ABC, I could place a + sign before B, before C, or both. Using a bitmask, I generate series of possible locations for these – then prepend 0, append the index one past the last character, and use them in pairs as dividing points in the digit string. Thus with ABC I'd generate:

  • 0 1 3 = A + BC
  • 0 2 3 = AB + C
  • 0 1 2 3 = A + B + C

Here's the Ruby:

def splnum(n)
  k=Integer.sqrt(n)
  if k*k!=n then
    return 0
  end

I could do string slicing, but I'm happier with arrays.

  d=n.to_s.split("")
  dl=d.length-1

This will fail in the case of no splits at all (n=1) but I don't really care.

  1.upto((1<<dl)-1) do |s|
    sa=[0]
    0.upto(dl-1) do |i|
      if s & (1<<i) > 0 then
        sa.push(i+1)
      end
    end
    sa.push(dl+1)

With the list of splits, slice the array, join and parse each slice into an integer, and add them. (Actually there's a better trick for that, but I didn't know it at the time; see next week's post.)

    c=0
    0.upto(sa.length()-2) do |j|
      c+=d.slice(sa[j],sa[j+1]-sa[j]).join("").to_i
    end
    if c==k then
      return 1
    end
  end
  return 0
end

The numbers for which this is valid are of course A104113 "Numbers which when chopped into one, two or more parts, added and squared result in the same number"; that doesn't have much to say, and nor does its square root A038206 "Can express a(n) with the digits of a(n)^2 in order, only adding plus signs", though it goes give a recursive generator in Python.

And yes, it works in PostScript too, though it's a bit longer and needs some library functions (i2s and apush) written for earlier challenges.

/splnum {
    /n exch def
    /ret 0 def
    n sqrt cvi /k exch def
    k k mul n ne {
        0 exit
    } if
    /d n i2s def
    /dl d length 1 sub def
    1 1 1 dl bitshift 1 sub {
        /sa [ 0 ] def
        /s exch def
        0 1 dl 1 sub {
            /i exch def
            s 1 i bitshift and 0 gt {
                /sa sa i 1 add apush def
            } if
        } for
        /sa sa dl 1 add apush def
        /c 0 def
        0 1 sa length 2 sub {
            /j exch def
            d
            sa j get
            sa j 1 add get sa j get sub
            getinterval cvi
            c add /c exch def
        } for
        c k eq {
            /ret 1 def
            exit
        } if
    } for
    ret
} bind def

Full code on github.

See also:
Perl Weekly Challenge 137: Long Cheryl

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